Dental book

blood group

Blood Group:

yahan par blood group ke in questions ka answer milega:

1. blood group kya hota hai.
2. ABO blood group kya hota hai. 
3. Rh system blood group kya hota hai.
4. donor aur recepient kaun hotein hain.
5. cross matching kya hota hai.
6. blood group ke kya hazards hain ya khatre hain. 

blood group samajne ke liye pehle hamein antigen aur antibody ko samajna hoga. 



- Agglutinogens antigen Hote Hain Jo RBC Ke surface par ya RBC par present Hote Hain, agglutinogens

 ka dusra Naam hota hai antigens.

 - Agglutinins Jo hote hain vah antibodies hote hain yeh plasma Mein ya blood ke serum ya 

plasma mein  hote hai. 

- RBC blood grouping ke hisab se Agar Ham isko classify karen to major blood group system:

ABO system hai, aur RH system

 minor blood grouping system jo hai vah MNS and P system Manay Jaate Hai 

Family blood group system jo hai woh KELL, DUFFY, lutheran, Bombay, KIDD system hai.

Landsteiner's law:

a. Carl landsteiner ne 1900 Mein state kiya tha, Jiske mutabik Agar surface koi bhi antigen present Hai
 To uske Against wala antibodies plasma Mein Nahin Paya jaega.
 b. lekin Agar antigen RBC ke surface per Nahin Hai to uska corresponding antibody plasma Mein 
present hoga. (corresponding antibody ka matlab hai  agar Anti A antibody hai to woh Antigen ke against 
attack kar sakti hai, isi tarah anti B reaction karegi  B antigen ke against ).  


blood group - antigens surface; antibodies serum
blood group - antigens surface; antibodies serum























B blood group antigen aur antibodies
B blood group antigen aur antibodies





















AB blood group antigen aur antibodies

AB blood group antigen aur antibodies



O blood group antigen aur antibodies
O blood group antigen aur antibodies






















Rh ya D antigen blood group antigen aur antibodies
Rh ya D antigen blood group antigen aur antibodies



-antigens A or B foetal life mein sixth week mein Paye Jaate Hain aur puberty ke bad hi

Inka level badhta rahata Hai. 

- Antibodies Lekin Paida hone per Nahin Milte lagbhag Paida hone ke 10 se 15 din ke bad  Milte Hain aur

 10 Sal Tak inki ki Matra badh Jaati hain, yeh Isliye hota hai Kyunki antigen  ke structure ki tarah aur 

bhi bacteria aur kahane ki cheeze hain. 

- Intestine Mein bacteria yah khana pahuchta hai Jo naya Paida Hua baccha khata

 hai, uske against antibodies produced hone lag Jaate Hain.

- Aur fir Dhire Dhire Karke Jab vah khane ki chijen khoon mein absorb hoke aati hain  unke against

 vah antibodies banti hai aur unki Matra badhati rahti hai yeh  Ek Tarah ka immune response hai.


R h blood group system bhi landsteiner Ne diya tha aur Weiner Ne 1940 mein discover

 kiya tha Rhesus monkey Mein, isliye Rh antigens kahan jata hai.

iske teen Prakar ke antigens hote hain C,D aur E. D antigen sabse zyada Milta Hai 

 aur Iske reaction Kafi Ghatak ho sakte hain.


Rh system landsteiner's law ko follow nahin karta hai  Agar RH antigen D antigen RBC Mein

 Nahin Hai To plasma mein bhi iski Matra Nahin Hogi ya nahin milegi.


iske antibodies IgG type ki hoti hai and Inki khasiyat yah hai ki yah placenta ko cross kar

 sakti hain. Aur Uterus mein Bade Hote Hue bacche ko attack kar sakti hain inhen 

warm antibodies kahan jata hai.  Vahin per ABO type mein jo antibodies hoti hain 

unhein cold antibodies Kaha jata hai aur vah IgM type ki hoti hai. Lekin placenta ko cross

ya arpaar nahin kar sakti jiski wahjah se ye badte hue bacche par koi damage nahin kar sakti. 


Agar Kisi Ko galat blood transfusion Ho Jaaye to uski vajah se kya kya ho sakta hai:

 Kisi condition mein agar father Rh positive ho aur mother Rh negative aur pahle pregnancy mein baccha

 RH positive Ho Jaaye tab uss pregnancy mein koi problem Nahin Dikhati mother ka khoon ke antibodies

 Foetus ko attack nahin karta kunki mother ne abhi tak antibodies abhi tak nahin banaye hain 

 lekin delivery ke Waqt ho sakta hai ki thoda Khoon bacche Ka Maa ke Khoon ke sath mix Ho Jaaye uss

 mix hone ke vajah se. mother Apne Khoon Mein anti Rh antibodies Banane lag Jaati Hai

 fir dusri  pregnancy mein Jab foetus develop ho raha hai Uterus mein.

yah Jo RH antibodies hai maa ke plasma ke andar vah plasma ko cross kar sakti hai. Cross karte hi 

 bacche ke plasma ke andar enter Kar Jaati Hain aur vahan per Har RBC par attack karne lag jaati hai

 aur ise Kahate Hain RH incompatibility reaction. 

isliye 1 pregnancy ke bad ki pregnancy mein Dikhta Hai erythroblastosis Fetalis.

 Jab anti Rh antibodies bacche ke plasma ke andar RBC ko attack karne lag Jaati Hai tab bacche mein 

bahut Jyada anemia Milta Hai, aur RBC  Unki Matra kam Ho Jaati Hai.

Icterus gravis neonatorum: jab  RBC Jyada destroy hone ki vajah se hemoglobin RBC se release ho jata

 hai Jo Dheere Dheere Karke bilirubin ka level badhta rahata hai Jiski vajah se bacchon mein jaundice

  mil sakta hai.


Kernicterus:

Agar hemoglobin ki matra Bacche Mein 18 milligram per dl Se Jyada badh Jaaye to  uss condition Mein

 biliruin blood brain barrier navjaat Shishu Mein cross kar sakti hain, aur central nervous system Mein

 basal ganglia mein ghus jati hai. iiska karan Hai Kyunki Chhote bacchon mein blood brain barrier

 pura develop Nahin Hua Hota aur bade bacchon mei devleop ya pura ban jata hai aur ek cover ki tarah

nervous system ko alag kerke rakhta hai.  


Hydrops Fetalis:

hydrops Fetalis iss condition Mein Yahi Rh antibodies RBC ko destroy karte hue Dheere Dheere Karke

 bacche ko edema Badha deti hai ya paani ki matra bada deti hain.  aur bacche mein Kafi swelling Najar 

aati hai isliye hydrops Fetalis Kaha jata hai.

iss incompatibility ya bimari ko rookne ke liye Jaise hi pahle delivery Ho Jaati Hai tab Maa ko ek

 dose RH antibody ya anti D antibodies di  jati hai Iske wajah se maa mein antibodies Nahin banpayengi

jo Rh positive RBC ke against hongi.  sath mein bacche ko bachane ke liye jald se jald RH positive blood

 bacche mein se nikal liya jata hai aur Rh negative blood jaldi se jaldi Diya Jata Hai ise 

exchange transfusion  Kahate Hain.


Blood transfusion:

- Jab bahut hi Jaruri Ho Jaise blood loss Kisi accident surgery se, pregnancy mein agar Khoon Jyada 

bah Jaaye, Kisi Prakar ki poisoning Ho. 

- Donor woh hota hai jo khoon dega aur recipient vah hota hai jisse Khoon Milega.

-Universal Donor O negative ko Kahate Hain Universal recipient AB+ hai jo Khoon Le sakte hain.

-donor kaun ho sakta hai: donor woh hota hai jo healthy Ho,  jaruri hai Umar 18 - 60 Sal honi chahie. 

-Agar pregnancy Ho lactation ho un ladies se khoon nahin liya. 

- Bimari jaise  hepatitis, Malaria, syphilis, AIDS patients se Khoon Ne liya Jata Sathi kyonki yeh

 bimariyan blood se transfer ho sakti hain  doosre patients ko.

 - hemoglobin RBC PCV count a sari normal honi chahie.


major cross matching: 

 Jab donor Ke RBC aur recipient ke plasma ko test kiya jaaye usee major cross matching Kahate Hain.


 minocross matching: 

 Jab donon Ke plasma ko recipient ke RBC Se Match Kiya Jaaye isee minor cross matching kehte hain.


precautions blood donation ke liye:

- Yad Rahe RH positive blood ko kabhi bhi RH negative recipient Ko Nahin Dena chahie.

 - Blood transfusion dete Hue Raftaar bhi slow ya dheemi honi chahie.

-  Sare aseptic precautions Lena jaruri hai taki koi infection needle injection ke site par na hoo

-  10 se 15 minut Jarur recepient ko oserve  Karen Agar patient ko koi reaction dikhe too turant transfusion

ko band kardena chahiye. 

- Agar antigen aur antibody Chipak Jaaye to use agglutination Kaha Jata Hai Iske wajah se 

Chhati Mein Dard pet Mein Dard ho sakta hai. 

- RBC Ka tutna haemolysis Kaha jata hai aur uski vajah se hemoglobin ki Matra badh Jaati Hai.

-  Hemoglobin urine Mein Bhi Jyada nikalne lag jata hai, jaundice dikhata ha bilirubin badhne ki wajah se. 

-  Kidney failure ho jata hai Kyunki kidney ki blood supply Band Ho Jaati Hai RBC agglutination ke

 vajah se.

-  Agar Khoon jaldi se Diya gaya hai aur Thande temperature Ka Diya Gaya hai phir badan ka temperature 

kam ho sakta hai.

 - Allergy reaction ho sakti hai, hypocalcemia bhi mil sakta hai.


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