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Male Reproductive System - Testes Notes - Biology notes - Physiology Notes

 Male Reproductive System


TESTES:

It is the primary reproductive organs or gonads in males(gonads sex cells produce karte hain).  Suspended outside the body cavity in Scrotum( Scrotum ek bag ki tarah structure hai jo Testes ko body se kam temperature par rakhta hai).

Weight – 25 gms. 

 Coverings 1) Tunica vasculosa – innermost( sabse andar layer hai jo loose connective tissue se bana hai  . 2) Tunica albuginea – Fibrous capsule of testes, collagen fibers & elastic fibres ka bana hai. Bahut sare Septa deewar ki tarah jo Testes ko andar se divide kar dete hain Lobules mein.


 Function: 

- Production of sperm.  

-Synthesis of Testosterone, Estrogen and Progesterone  .


Blood supply.  

Arterial – Testicular artery.  Venous –  Pampiniform plexus,  Lymphatic drainage – lumbar & preaortic lymph nodes.


Lobule Structure:


Har Lobule ke andar Seminiferous Tubules hain Inki length 70 to 80 CM lambi hoti hai.  seminiferous tubules rete testis Ban Jaate Hain aur fir  Ductuli Efferentes  Ban Jaate Hain. Aur finally a Sab join hoke epididymis mein drain Ho Jaenge. Vas deferens  phir continue hota hai Vas Deferens ban ke. Vas deferens Iske bad join ho jata hai seminal vesicle ke sath aur ab Ban Jaega ejaculatory duct. Ejaculatory duct aage male urethra mein drain ho jata hai.


Seminiferous Tubules -- Rete Testis -- Ductuli Efferentes-- Epididymis -- Vas Deferens--   Vas Deferens + seminal Vesicle -- ejaculatory duct -- urethra( male).


Cells: 

Testis Mein Do important type ke cells present hai.

  1. Leydig cells: function

Testosterone secretion - Jiski vajah se a epididymis seminal vesicle prostate Jaise accessory sexual organs ki development hoti hai hai aur Saathi e-mails ki secondary sexual characters develop Hote Hain.


  1. Sertoli Cells: -Provides support and nutrition. Can remove substances by phagocytosis.They are also known as nursing cells as they support the developing sperms.( Seminiferous tubules ke basement membrane per present Hote Hain yah sperms ki development mein bahut important Hote Hain). 

Function 

a. Secretion of androgen binding protein (Testosteron se bind Karta hai) ,  Inhibin B, Mullerian regression factor ( Males mein Female sex organs ko develope Nahin hone deta, Aromatase( Testosterone ko estrogen mein convert karta hai)

b.Forms blood testis barrier ( Blood testis barrier testis ke andar sperms ko Bahar Ke a antibodies ke damage se bacha ke Rakhta hai, is barrier ki wahaj see andar ka lumen fluid ka composition maintain bhi rehta hai).

c. Helps in  spermiation ( Sperms Ko release karne mein help karta hai tubular fluid mein).

  1. Spermatogenic cells:

From base to lumen have 4-7 layers (Jo cells  base Per Hote Hain vah spermatogenesis Ki early stage wale cells Hote Hain.


Spermatogenesis:

Formation of mature spermatozoa from spermatogonia is called spermatogenesis ( Spermatogonia sabase pehla cell hai jo jaise age ho ke mature hoga phir mature spermatogonia ban jayega).

74 days lagte hain, Puberty mein start hota hai.


                                          Spermatogonium (46  chromosomes) 


                          Mitosis division hogi jisse aur alag cell banege aur chromosome 46 hi rahega


                                   Primary Spermatocyte (46)( Primary Spermatocyte ab divide hoga 1st  meiotically jiske wajah se chromosome number half hojayenge aur phir banege secondary spermatocyte) 


                                     Secondary Spermatocytes (23) [ ab second meiotic division hoga jiske baad spermatids cells banenge]


                                      Spermatids (23 chromosomes, aur ab yeh mature hoke finally spermatozoa banjayenge)


                                      Spermatozoa (23 chromosomes)



Important Factors for Spermatogenesis:

  • Lower body temperature( Isliye testis scrotum meaning paya jata hai jo body ke bahar Hota Hai).

  •  presence of testosterone hormone

  • FSH – stimulates sertoli cells.

  • LH - stimulates Testosterone hormone production (LH - Leydig cells - Testosterone production). 

Spermiogenesis: conversion of spermatids to spermatozoa in sertoli cells.



SEMEN:

  • During the male sexual act the fluid ejaculated is called semen.  

  • Composed of secretions from:  

  • Vas deferens,10%,Seminal vesicle – 60%,Prostate glands -30% and Bulbourethral glands –small amounts.

  • Volume—2 ml - 4ml

  • pH    --  7.2  -  8

  • Total sperm count –40 million or more per ejaculate

  • Motility –50% or more wid forward progression –Grade 4 motility 

  • Morphology  --30% or more wid normal forms

  • Vitality  --  75% or more live 

  • WBC  -- < 1 million  

  • Fructose –3mg/ml or more


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