Prolactin , Vassopressin & Oxytocin - Biology Notes, Physiology Notes


Prolactin is a polypeptide, It is synthesized and secreted from anterior pituitary gland cells called lactotroph cells. Hypothalamus releases prolactin releasing hormone which stimulates prolactin release( prolactin ki production bdhata hai) and Prolactin Inhibiting hormone which decreases Prolactin synthesis from anterior Pitutary.  




  • Prolactin is responsible for initiating and sustaining lactation and breast development during pregnancy (prolactin aisa hormone hai Jo milk banata hai, aur banata rahata hai jab tak female breastfeeding karti hai Apne bacche ko). 


  • Helps in breast development during pregnancy(Sath mein yah brest ki development Karta Hai pregnancy ke dauran). 


  • It prevents ovulation during Lactation (Lactation ke time prolactin LH or FSH hormone ko inhibit karta hai Jiski vajah se aur pregnancy Na Ho Paye) 


Antidiuretic Hormone or Vasopressin: 


Is formed in supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus 




  1. Kidney 


  • It maintains the water balance in the body by acting on Kidneys where it reduces excretion of water( vasopressin ke action ke vajah se Pani body se kam nikal Pata Hai yah water ki excretion ko kam kar deta hai urine mein). 


  • it acts on late part of DCT and collecting tubules to increase permeability of water, it increases the pore size of aquaporin 2 channels thus increasing water reabsorption.

(ADH ke action ke vajah se Aquaporin 2 channels aur bade ho Jaate Hain aur Pani jyada reabsorb ho jata hai 

  • It can also cause peripheral vasoconstriction and increase in blood pressure. 


Diabetes Insipidus:


It is a clinical condition characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to decrease in ADH secretion or failure of response to ADH in Kidneys. 

(Jab Bhi body Mein vasopressin ki Kami ho ya Vasopressin Apna Kam Kidneys Mein Na Kar Paye Diabetes Insipidus us condition mein ho saktahai).



  1. Central: There is less secretion of from posterior pituitary or less synthesis from Hypothalamus. 


  1. Nephrogenic: there is failure of Kidney response to vasopressin. 


Sign & Symptoms: 

  1. Polyurea there is excessive loss of water around 10 to 20 litres per day (Kyunki ADH Apna Kam Nahin kar pa Raha to pani ka reabsorption kam ho jata Hai Iski vajah se body mein se 10 se 20 litre daily urine ke through nikal jata hai). 


  1. Polydipsia: excessive thirst for large quantities of water (Yahan Inko bahut jyada Pyas lagti hai aur Thande Pani Ki).


  1. Dehydration: due to severe loss of water 




Hormone synthesized in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and stored in posterior lobe of Pituitary gland. 




  • It causes contraction of smooth muscles of the uterus (Uterus ke muscle ko myometrium Kahate Hain jo Oxytocin ke action ke vajah se contract karne lag Jaati Hai, Jiski vajah se foetus uterus se bahar external environment Mein aa Jata Hai labour ke time). 

  • Helps in transport of sperms towards Fallopian tube due to uterine contractions (Oxytocin ki vajah se Uterus mein contractions Aate Jo sperm ko push Karte Hain ovum ki taraf jo fallopian tube mein hota hai). 

  • Breast feeding: it helps in ejection of milk by breast, by stimulating the contraction of smooth muscles lining the duct of mammary glands causing milk ejection reflex or Milk Let Down Reflex (Jab baccha mother ke nipples pe touch karta hai to nipples ke touch receptors activate hone ke vajah se posterior pituitary se Oxytocin release Hota Hai jo breast ke myoepithelial cells par action karta hai jiski wajah se woh contract karte hain aur milk nikaalta Hain nipples se). 


  • It improves bonding between mother and child that's why it is called as love hormone. 

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